What is EcoOcean?

EcoOcean logoEcoOcean is a spatially and temporally explicit mechanistic marine ecosystem modelling (MEM) complex of the global ocean, that unifies the consideration of spatial-temporal food-web dynamics ranging from primary producers to top predators with the impacts of environmental change and worldwide fisheries.

EcoOcean is built upon a heavily modified version of Ecospace, the spatial-temporal module of the Ecopath with Ecosim approach, where EwE calculations were expanded or replaced to represent spatial heterogenity in fishing and the behaviour, growth and movement of functional groups across the worlds’ oceans.

EcoOcean contributes to the ISIMIP and FishMIP initiatives.

Diagram of the various components that make up the EcoOean v2 modelling diagram

Schematic overview of the EcoOcean v2 modelling complex (Coll et al. 2020)


  • 51 functional groups representing 3400+ species
  • 14 fishing fleets representing 1,365 global fisheries
  • run period 1950-2100 at monthly time steps
  • spatial resolution 1dd (EcoOcean V1 and V2)
  • ISIMIP3b input data volume: 60GB
  • EcoOcean output data volume: 120GB
  • EcoOcean run time: approximately 8 hours (PC)

Ecospace models for smaller areas can suffice with functional groups to generalize the representation of the different species within. EcoOcean, representing generic functional groups at the global scale, needs to consider the fact that the species compostion within functional groups vastly differs over time and space.

We have found a way to represent the spatial distribution and environmental preferences of 3400+ species within generic functional groups without having to explicitly model these species. This allows the modelling complex to account for the vast differences in termal preferences, depth affinities, and other major environmental conditions within a single functional group.

We call this system ‘cell-specific responses’. This system only considers environmental preferences for those species within a functional group that are likely to occur in those cells, where the likelihood of occurrence is a combined assessment of per-species cell suitability and evolving native distribution ranges.

EcoOcean incorporates temperature-adjusted metabolic rates to account for spatial differences in species growth and production under influence of long-term global temperatures.

EcoOcean is driven by global reanalysis of historical fishing effort per LME. Within each LME, historical total effort is distributed via the Ecospace fishing effort gravity model.

EcoOcean is a testing bed for exploring the impact of ecological, climatological and socioeconomic hypotheses, and allows for systematic exploration and analysis of combintations of hypotheses to reproduce historical observations, and to forecast plausible states of future ecosystems. Such modularity is direly needed to allow the schientific community to learn from mechanistic models and their uncertainty, and to advance ecological understanding.


EcoOcean is a product of ongoing collaborations between Ecopath International Initiative (Spain), the Institute of Marine Sciences (ICM-CSIC) (Spain), the Institute of the Oceans and Fisheries at the University of British Columbia (Canada), and Mountainsoft (Canada)

Development is funded through the projects TRIATLAS and ProOceans.


EcoOcean model results for the ISIMIP3b simulation rounds can be downloaded directly from isimip.org

The source code to EcoOcean is not freely available, but we are open to collaborations. To discuss options please contact us.



Boot, Amber Adore; Steenbeek, Jeroen Gerhard; Coll, Marta; Heydt, Anna S. Von Der; Dijkstra, Henk A.

Global Marine Ecosystem Response to a Strong AMOC Weakening under Low and High Future Emission Scenarios Journal Article

In: Authorea Preprints, 2024.

Links | BibTeX

Blanchard, Julia L.; Novaglio, Camilla; Maury, Olivier; Harrison, Cheryl Shannon; Petrik, Colleen M.; Arcos, L. Denisse Fierro; Ortega-Cisneros, Kelly; Bryndum-Buchholz, Andrea; Eddy, Tyler; Heneghan, Ryan

Detecting, Attributing, and Projecting Global Marine Ecosystem and Fisheries Change: FishMIP 2.0 Journal Article

In: Authorea Preprints, 2024.


Steenbeek, Jeroen; Ortega, Pablo; Bernardello, Raffaele; Christensen, Villy; Coll, Marta; Exarchou, Eleftheria; Fuster-Alonso, Alba; Heneghan, Ryan; Melis, Laura Julià; Pennino, Maria Grazia; Rivas, David; Keenlyside, Noel

Making Ecosystem Modeling Operational – a Novel Distributed Execution Framework to Systematically Explore Ecological Responses to Divergent Climate Trajectories Journal Article

In: Earth's Future, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. e2023EF004295, 2024, ISSN: 2328-4277.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX


Steenbeek, J.; Buszowski, J.; Chagaris, D.; Christensen, V.; Coll, M.; Fulton, E. A.; Katsanevakis, S.; Lewis, K. A.; Mazaris, A. D.; Macias, D.; de Mutsert, K.; Oldford, G.; Pennino, M. Grazia; Piroddi, C.; Romagnoni, G.; Serpetti, N.; Shin, Y-J; Spence, M. A.; Stelzenmüller, V.

Making spatial-temporal marine ecosystem modelling better – A perspective Journal Article

In: Environmental Modelling & Software, vol. 145, pp. 105209, 2021, ISSN: 1364-8152.

Links | BibTeX

Tittensor, D. P.; Novaglio, C.; Harrison, C. S.; Heneghan, R. F.; Barrier, N.; Bianchi, D.; Bopp, L.; Bryndum-Buchholz, A.; Britten, G. L.; Büchner, M.; Cheung, W. W. L.; Christensen, V.; Coll, M.; Dunne, J. P.; Eddy, T. D.; Everett, J. D.; Fernandes-Salvador, J. A.; Fulton, E. A.; Galbraith, E. D.; Gascuel, D.; Guiet, J.; John, J. G.; Link, J. S.; Lotze, H. K.; Maury, O.; Ortega-Cisneros, K.; Palacios-Abrantes, J.; Petrik, C.; Pontavice, H.; Rault, J.; Richardson, A. J.; Shannon, L. J.; Shin, Y-J; Steenbeek, J.; Stock, C. A.; Blanchard, J. L.

Next-generation ensemble projections reveal higher climate risks for marine ecosystems Journal Article

In: Nature Climate Change, pp. 1–9, 2021, ISSN: 1758-6798, (Bandiera_abtest: a Cc_license_type: cc_by Cg_type: Nature Research Journals Primary_atype: Research Publisher: Nature Publishing Group Subject_term: Climate-change ecology;Ecological modelling;Marine biology Subject_term_id: climate-change-ecology;ecological-modelling;marine-biology).

Links | BibTeX

Heneghan, R. F.; Galbraith, E. D.; Blanchard, J. L.; Harrison, C.; Barrier, N.; Bulman, C.; Cheung, W. W. L.; Coll, M.; Eddy, T. D.; Erauskin-Extramiana, M.; Everett, J. D.; Fernandes-Salvador, J. A.; Gascuel, D.; Guiet, J.; Maury, O.; Palacios-Abrantes, J.; Petrik, C.; Pontavice, H.; Richardson, A. J.; Steenbeek, J.; Tai, T. C.; Volkholz, J.; Woodworth-Jefcoats, P. A.; Tittensor, D. P.

Disentangling diverse responses to climate change among global marine ecosystem models Journal Article

In: Progress in Oceanography, pp. 102659, 2021, ISSN: 0079-6611.

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Coll, M.; Steenbeek, J.; Pennino, M. Grazia; Buszowski, J.; Kaschner, K.; Lotze, H. K.; Rousseau, Y.; Tittensor, D. P.; Walters, C. J.; Watson, R.; Christensen, V.

Advancing global ecological modelling capabilities to simulate future trajectories of change in marine ecosystems Journal Article

In: Frontiers in Marine Science, vol. 7, 2020, ISSN: 2296-7745, (Publisher: Frontiers).

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Waldron, A.; Adams, V.; Allan, J.; Arnell, A.; Asner, G.; Atkinson, S.; Baccini, A.; Baillie, J. E. M.; Balmford, A.; Beau, J. A.; Brander, L.; Brondizio, E.; Bruner, A.; Burgess, N. D.; Burkart, K.; Butchart, S. H. M.; Button, R.; Carrasco, R.; Cheung, W. W. L.; Christensen, V.; Clements, A.; Coll, M.; di Marco, M.; Deguignet, M.; Dinerstein, E.; Ellis, E.; Eppink, F.; Ervin, J.; Escobedo, A.; Fa, J.; Fernandes-Llamazares, A.; Fernando, S.; Fujimori, S.; Fulton, E. A.; Garnett, S.; Gerber, J.; Gill, D.; Gopalakrishna, T.; Hahn, N.; Halpern, B.; Hasegawa, T.; Havlik, P.; Heikinheimo, V.; Heneghan, R. F.; Henry, E.; Humpenoder, F.; Jonas, H.; Jones, K. R.; Joppa, J.; Joshi, A. R.; Jung, M.; Kingston, N.; Klein, C. J.; Krisztin, T.; Lam, V.; Leclere, D.; Lindsey, P.; Locke, H.; Lovejoy, T.; Madgwick, P.; Malhi, Y.; Malmer, P.; Maron, M.; Mayorga, J.; van Meijl, H.; Miller, D.; Molnar, Z.; Mueller, N.; Mukherjee, N.; Naidoo, R.; Nakamura, K.; Nepal, P.; Noss, R.; O’Leary, B.; Olson, D.; Abrantes, J. Palcios; Paxton, M.; Popp, A.; Possingham, H.; Prestemon, J.; Reside, A.; Robinson, C.; Robinson, J.; Sala, E.; Scherrer, K.; Spalding, M. D.; Spenceley, A.; Steenbeek, J.; Stehfest, E.; Strassborg, B.; Sumaila, R.; Swinnerton, K.; Sze, J.; Tittensor, D. P.; Toivonen, T.; Toledo, A.; Torres, P. Negret; van Zeist, W-J; Vause, J.; Venter, O.; Vilela, T.; Visconti, P.; Vynne, C.; Watson, R.; Watson, J.; Wikramanayake, E.; William, B.; Wintle, B. A.; Woodley, S.; Wu, W.; Zander, K.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y.

Protecting 30% of the planet for nature: costs, benefits and economic implications. Working paper analysing the economic implications of the proposed 30% target for areal protection in the draft post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework Technical Report

Campaign for nature 2020.

Links | BibTeX


Lotze, H. K.; Tittensor, D. P.; Bryndum-Buchholz, A.; Eddy, T. D.; Cheung, W. W. L.; Galbraith, E. D.; Barange, M.; Barrier, N.; Bianchi, D.; Blanchard, J.; Bopp, L.; Büchner, M.; Bulman, C.; Carozza, D.; Christensen, V.; Coll, M.; Dunne, J. P.; Fulton, E. A.; Jennings, S.; Jones, M.; Mackinson, S.; Maury, O.; Niiranen, S.; Oliveros-Ramos, R.; Roy, T.; Fernandes, J. A.; Schewe, J.; Shin, Y-J; Silva, T.; Steenbeek, J.; Stock, C. A.; Verley, P.; Volkholz, J.; Walker, N. D.; Worm, B.

Global ensemble projections reveal trophic amplification of ocean biomass declines with climate change Journal Article

In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, pp. 201900194, 2019, ISSN: 0027-8424, 1091-6490.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Schewe, J.; Gosling, S. N.; Reyer, C.; Zhao, F.; Ciais, P.; Elliott, J.; Francois, L.; Huber, V.; Lotze, H. K.; Seneviratne, S.; van Vliet, M. T. H.; Vautard, R.; Wada, Y.; Breuer, L.; Büchner, M.; Carozza, D. A.; Chang, J.; Coll, M.; Deryng, D.; de Wit, A.; Eddy, T. D.; Folberth, C.; Frieler, K.; Friend, A. D.; Gerten, D.; Gudmundsson, L.; Hanasaki, N.; Ito, A.; Khabarov, N.; Kim, H.; Lawrence, P.; Morfopoulos, C.; Müller, C.; Schmied, H. Müller; Orth, R.; Ostberg, S.; Pokhrel, Y.; Pugh, T. A. M.; Sakurai, G.; Satoh, Y.; Schmid, E.; Stacke, T.; Steenbeek, J.; Steinkamp, J.; Tang, Q.; Tian, H.; Tittensor, D. P.; Volkholz, J.; Wang, X.; Warszawski, L.

State-of-the-art global models underestimate impacts from climate extremes Journal Article

In: Nature Communications, 2019.


Bryndum-Buchholz, A.; Tittensor, D. P.; Blanchard, J. L.; Cheung, W. W. L.; Coll, M.; Galbraith, E. D.; Jennings, S.; Maury, O.; Lotze, H. K.

21st century climate change impacts on marine animal biomass and ecosystem structure across ocean basins Journal Article

In: Global Change Biology, vol. https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.14512, 2019, (Type: Journal Article).


Schewe, J.; Gosling, S.; Reyer, C.; Zhao, F.; Ciais, P.; Elliott, J.; Francois, L.; Huber, V.; Lotze, H.; Seneviratne, S.

State-of-the-art global models underestimate impacts from climate extremes Journal Article

In: Nature Communications, 2019.



Tittensor, D. P.; Eddy, T. D.; Lotze, H. K.; Galbraith, E. D.; Cheung, W. W. L.; Barange, M.; Blanchard, J. L.; Bopp, L.; Bryndum-Buchholz, A.; Büchner, M.; Bulman, C.; Carozza, D. A.; Christensen, V.; Coll, M.; Dunne, J. P.; Fernandes, J. A.; Fulton, E. A.; Hobday, A. J.; Huber, V.; Jennings, S.; Jones, M.; Lehodey, P.; Link, J. S.; Mackinson, S.; Maury, O.; Niiranen, S.; Oliveros-Ramos, R.; Roy, T.; Schewe, J.; Shin, Y-J; Silva, T.; Stock, C. A.; Steenbeek, J.; Underwood, P. J.; Volkholz, J.; Watson, J. R.; Walker, N. D.

A protocol for the intercomparison of marine fishery and ecosystem models: Fish-MIP v1.0 Journal Article

In: Geosci. Model Dev., vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 1421–1442, 2018, ISSN: 1991-9603.

Links | BibTeX

Tittensor, D.; Lotze, H. K.; Tyler, P.; Galbraith, E. D.; Cheung, W. W. L.; Bryndum-Buchholz, A.; Barange, M.; Barrier, N.; Bianchi, D.; Blanchard, J. L.; Bopp, L.; Carozza, D. A.; Christensen, V.; Coll, M.; Jennings, S.; Jones, M.; Maury, O.; Silva, T. A. M.; Steenbeek, J.; Verley, P.; Schewe, J.; Volkholz, J.; Büchner, M.

ISIMIP2a Simulation Data from Fisheries & Marine Ecosystems (Fish-MIP; global) Sector. GFZ Data Services Journal Article

In: http://dataservices.gfz-potsdam.de/pik/showshort.php?id=escidoc:2956913, 2018, (Type: Journal Article).



Christensen, V.; Coll, M.; Buszowski, J.; Cheung, W. W. L.; Frölicher, T.; Steenbeek, J.; Stock, C. A.; Watson, R.; Walters, C. J.

The global ocean is an ecosystem: Simulating marine life and fisheries Journal Article

In: Global Ecology and Biogeography, vol. 24, no. 5, pp. 507–517, 2015.

Links | BibTeX